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Install Apache Web Server On Ubuntu 20.04 | StackCoder


Install Apache Web Server On Ubuntu 20.04 / Linux & Manage It


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Hello! In this tutorial, you will learn how to install Apache, Manage it & Create Virtual Hosts in Ubuntu 20.04. Apache web server is the most widely used web server in the market.


Prerequisites


Before moving ahead with this article I request you guys to setup up Ubuntu 20.04 server in Digital OceanLinode or any other cloud platform. If you don't have an account then click on the link and get the free credits to play around :)


You might be interested in securing your server after initial installation How To Do Basic Server Security Setup For Ubuntu / Linux.


Step 1 - Install Apache Web Server


First & foremost thing after logging into your server is to update the Ubuntu server packages so that the latest packages are available.


sudo apt update


Now install apache2 Web Server


sudo apt install -y apache2

Step 2 - Check The Apache Web Server Status


Now after you have installed your apache2 web server by default it will be running as system process.


To check the status of the apache2 server use the following service command


sudo service apache2 status


or using systemctl command


sudo systemctl status apache2


You will similar to the following output


apache2.service - LSB: Apache2 web server
  Loaded: loaded (/etc/init.d/apache2; bad; vendor preset: enabled)
 Drop-In: /lib/systemd/system/apache2.service.d
      └─apache2-systemd.conf
  Active: active (running) since Fri 2020-01-31 17:40:55 IST; 3 months 0 days ago
   Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8)
 Process: 9350 ExecReload=/etc/init.d/apache2 reload (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Tasks: 20
  Memory: 12.5G
   CPU: 1month 2w 4d 9h 30min 45.734s
  CGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service
      ├─22008 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
      ├─22245 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start

Step 3 - Testing In Web Browser


Now to check if your server is running on it. Go to browser and type the server ip_address.


Use the following command in your logged in server to know the server ip_address.


hostname -I


It will return multiple ip_address with white space, try one by one. Most of the time first one will work.


Now with the above ip_address type as follows


http://server_ip_address


You must be able to see the following in your web page


Apache2 Server Installed After Successful Installation

Apache2 Server Installed After Successful Installation


Step 4 - Manage Apache Web Server


Once you have installed you have to manage it in future. There are 2 ways by which you can manage it with service or systemctl commands.


Start Apache Server


sudo service apache2 start


OR


sudo systemctl start apache2



Stop Apache Server


sudo service apache2 stop


OR


sudo systemctl stop apache2



Restart Apache Server


sudo service apache2 restart


OR


sudo systemctl restart apache2



Disable Auto Start After Reboot


sudo systemctl disable apache2



Enable Auto Start After Reboot


sudo systemctl enable apache2

Step 5 - Virtual Hosts Management


We use virtual hosts so that we can manage more than 1 website in single server. By default all domains will be pointing to /var/www/html folder.


For the sake of security & managing multiple website you need to point it to /var/www/ folder, which can have projects like /var/www/project_name


We will create first_domain & second_domain to mange it at /var/www folder.


NOTE: Replace first_domain & second_domain with your domains


mkdir -p /var/www/first_domain/


mkdir -p /var/www/second_domain/

Now assign the main user ownership to first_domain & second_domain with $USER environment variable


For First Domain


sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/first_domain


For Second Domain


sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/second_domain


Make sure to give the proper file permissions for the project to work properly. Use the following command to allow root user read, write and execute permission and other to read & write permissions


First Domain


chown -R 755 /var/www/first_domain


Second Domain


chown -R 755 /var/www/second_domain

Create index.html files for the sake of testing


First Domain


sudo nano /var/www/first_domain/index.html


Add the following HTML content it index.html file


<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <title>First Domain</title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1>First Domain Project!</h1>
</body>
</html>


Second Domain


sudo nano /var/www/second_domain/index.html


Add the following HTML content it index.html file


<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <title>Second Domain</title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1>Second Domain Project!</h1>
</body>
</html>

Tell Apache To Server Which Domain Web Pages To Server


Now its time to tell which domain needs to access which project folder files.


Sites Available ( /etc/apache2/sites-available ) - Here we will place all our sites Apache configuration file
Site Enabled (/etc/apache2/sites-enabled) - Here all the enabled apache website configuration resides. This is usually points to sites-available.


By default you will have /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf configuration which will be pointing to /var/www/html/index.html folder file.


First Domain


sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/first_domain.conf


And paste the following virtual host config data. The following code will tell that its listening on port 80 pointing to your first_domain which has an alias of ww.first_domain (this is non mandatory). We are storing the error & access logs in the default error & access logs path of apache.


<VirtualHost *:80>
  ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
  ServerName first_domain
  ServerAlias www.first_domain
  DocumentRoot /var/www/first_domain/
  ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
  CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
</VirtualHost>



Second Domain


sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/second_domain.conf


And paste the following virtual host config data. The following code will tell that its listening on port 80 pointing to your second_domain which has an alias of ww.second_domain (this is non mandatory). We are storing the error & access logs in the default error & access logs path of apache.


<VirtualHost *:80>
  ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
  ServerName second_domain
  ServerAlias www.second_domain
  DocumentRoot /var/www/second_domain/
  ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
  CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
</VirtualHost>


NOTE: Apache logs exists in /var/log/apache2/ folder

Enable & Disable The Configurations


Now you have added the configuration files for your server. To tell Apache server to load the changes of new configurations file and disable the default configuration file use the following


First Domain


sudo a2ensite first_domain.conf


Second Domain


sudo a2ensite second_domain.conf


Disable Default Config


sudo a2dissite 000-default.conf

Check For Configuration Error


To check if the configurations that we have add are all correct use the following command


sudo apache2ctl configtest


You should see the output similar to that of the following


Syntax Ok

Restart Apache Server


To make configurations take an effect and let apache server load those you need to restart the server with the command


sudo service apache2 restart


OR


sudo systemctl restart apache2

Testing Your Configurations In Browser


Load http://first_domain in your browser & http://second_domain in your browser to see successful pages.


Second Domain Project

Second Domain Project


First Domain Project

First Domain Project


Error Debugging


Sometimes you may get 404 page after doing all these. You can do the simple change in /etc/apache2/apache2.conf


Look for /var/www and change the code to below code


<Directory /var/www/>
	Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
	AllowOverride All
	Require all granted
</Directory>

Conclusion


In this article you learnt how to setup Apache server, mange it & creating virtual hosts.







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Channaveer Hakari

I am a full-stack developer working at WifiDabba India Pvt Ltd. I started this blog so that I can share my knowledge and enhance my skills with constant learning.

Never stop learning. If you stop learning, you stop growing